Celestial Mechanics - Kepler's Three Laws

 
First Law

“The orbit of every planet is an ellipse with the sun at one of the foci.”

Second Law

“A line joining a planet and the sun sweeps out equal areas during equal intervals of time.”

Third Law

“The squares of the orbital periods of planets are directly proportional to the cubes of the semi-major axis of the orbits.”

P = orbital period of planet
a = semimajor axis of orbit

 Read about coordinate systems.

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